Due to its composition, milk provides a good breeding ground for bacteria, which is why raw milk in particular is one of the most perishable foods. Milk today, thanks to pasteurization, is a very safe food. In addition to cow's milk, milk from other animal species, mostly sheep's and goat's milk, is also available.

Nutrition recommendations

Milk and dairy products contain high-quality protein and are, among other things, important suppliers of calcium and vitamin B12. According to the recommendations of the Austrian food pyramid, 3 portions of them should be consumed daily to ensure muscle maintenance and build-up.

We support you with our online tool"Food under the magnifying glass" to make an optimal choice of food.

Raw milk

Raw milk is only filtered and cooled after milking. Milking in a cow shed is not a sterile process: Therefore, contamination of raw milk with pathogens such as Listeria, Campylobacter or STEC (Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli) can never be completely ruled out, even with exemplary milking hygiene.

Infections with these bacteria can lead to serious diseases with possibly life-threatening consequences. Young children, the elderly, pregnant women and immunocompromised persons in particular are at increased risk.

Raw milk that is sold directly to consumers, e.g. via raw milk vending machines or in farm stores, must therefore bear the notice "Raw milk, boil before consumption". During regular focus inspections, we check whether raw milk has an increased bacterial load and whether it is correctly labeled.

Situation in Austria

Milk and dairy products are regularly analysed as part of official food inspections. In addition to labelling and quality (smell, taste and appearance), they are also tested for contamination with germs. Other aspects of testing include residues of hormones and veterinary medicines, as well as contamination with heavy metals or pesticides.

In 2022, 251 (12.3%) of the 2,033 samples analysed were rejected. The most common reasons for complaints were labelling deficiencies and/or misleading information. Almost exclusively microbial contamination due to hygiene deficiencies led to a complaint in 100 samples (4.9%). 33 samples (1.6 %), of which 22x cheese (3.3 % of 658 cheese samples) and 11x butter (8.4 % of 131 butter samples), were unfit for human consumption mainly due to microbial contamination. Four cheese samples (0.2 %) were unhealthy due to pathogenic germs.

Begutachtete und beanstandete Proben

Beanstandungsgründe in Prozent

Investigation results

Dairy products are analysed several times a year as part of priority campaigns:

Shelf life and consumption of milk

There is a wide variety of qualities of drinking milk on the Austrian market. As part of the Austrian research project ADDA(Advancement of Dairying in Austria), we conducted a survey with consumers and storage trials on the shelf life of ESL (extended shelf life) milk.

The aim of this study was to find out how consumers deal with this variety. Particular emphasis was placed on the topics of consumer behavior, storage conditions and shelf life in the household, as well as knowledge about ESL (extended shelf life) milk.

The results of the study can be found here.

Storage tests of ESL milk

We tested ESL milk samples according to the conditions recommended by manufacturers (6° C) as well as samples where the packages had already been opened or the storage temperature was 9° C.

The results show that Austrian ESL milk is of very good quality. Even after storage in the opened package or at a slightly increased storage temperature, no sample was found to be harmful to health.

However, since ESL milk is only heated for a short time, it will spoil if the storage temperature is too high.

It is therefore important to consume the milk within a few days of opening and to always comply with the storage conditions (especially temperature) specified by the manufacturer.



  • If the milk will be consumed within a few days, fresh milk is best.
  • If it is unclear when the milk will be consumed, buy "longer fresh" or "longer shelf life" milk.
  • The appropriate types of milk for the pantry are shelf-stable milk or other ultra-high temperature milk products. These can be stored unopened at room temperature for long periods of time (see manufacturer's instructions).
  • Do not interrupt the cold chain! During the hot summer months, a cooler bag is recommended for transporting purchases. Bring the milk home from the supermarket refrigeration as soon as possible. Milk that has been left unrefrigerated at the table for a long time while drinking coffee should be consumed or given away immediately afterwards

Storage & Consumption

  • Always keep fresh milk and ESL milk refrigerated. Ideally at 4 - 6 °C. For this purpose, the refrigerator at home should be checked with a thermometer from time to time. Milk should not be placed in the refrigerator door, as it is too warm there.
  • The indication of shelf life refers only to unopened and undamaged packages. Since this is a best-before date, milk from unopened packages in particular can often be used for longer, e.g. to make pudding.
  • Do not drink from the package! There are many germs in the oral cavity. Some of these can not only cause the milk to spoil more quickly, but also begin to produce toxins which then lead to severe food poisoning.
  • Once opened, milk should always be stored sealed in the refrigerator. Refrigerators can also harbor pathogens that don't die off in the cold and can get into open milk cartons. Aside from that, milk easily takes on odors from other foods.
  • Always boil raw milk before consumption!

Further information on shelf life and storage etc. can be found underAGES - Wissen aktuell, "Sicher kochen" and in our folder in the downloads.

Specialized information


Pasteurization was invented by the French chemist Louis Pasteur in 1864. Pasteurization is the short-term heating of liquid foodstuffs, during which most microorganisms can be killed. Today, this process is used for all drinking milk and has made boiling, which was common in the past, obsolete.

Classic pasteurized milk, as described in theAustrian Food Book, is heated only very briefly (15 seconds) to about 72 °C. The heat load is so low that it kills most microorganisms. The heat load here is so low that only a few changes in ingredients and taste can be detected.

If slightly higher temperatures are selected (85 °C, a few seconds), the shelf life of the milk is significantly extended. In this way, for example, "longer fresh" milk can be produced.

At even higher temperatures (135 °C, 1 second), the milk becomes long-life milk and can also be stored at room temperature.

Apart from heat treatment, only a few technological processes are used, such as homogenization or fat content adjustment by centrifugation.

For more information on analytical services for milk and dairy products and sensory testing, click here.

Last updated: 13.03.2024

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