Feed Safety: Service, Analytics
Feed is used to nourish livestock and pets, is at the beginning of the food chain and thus has a major influence on food safety. In order to be able to guarantee this and provide optimum nutrition for our farm animals, the use of high-quality and, above all, safe and thus legally compliant feed is indispensable.
A maximum of feed quality and feed safety can only be guaranteed by a functioning, efficient interaction between the feed companies' own control systems and appropriate governmental supervision and control.
Our Institute for Animal Nutrition and Feed is available to the public, farmers, feed companies, the federal provinces, as well as the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Regions and Water Management (BML) and the Federal Ministry of Social Affairs, Health, Care and Consumer Protection (BMSGPK) for inquiries, statements, analyses and scientific advice.
Feed Service - Services
As a feed company, the legislator does not always make it easy for you to act in compliance with the law. This is because you have to comply with a plethora of regulations that are constantly changing. Every law and every change has practical implications. For example, with regard to the labeling of your feed, quality assurance or the export of feed. With our experts, you know you have partners at your side who will guide you safely through this maze of regulations.
We offer feed companies tailor-made solutions. With the following advantages, among others:
- Expert opinions and test reports prepared by experts
- Comprehensive and interdisciplinary advice from a single source
- Simple and unbureaucratic processing
- Pastus+ certification body
- Short analysis or testing times
*The conformity assessment bodies are accredited by Accreditation Austria (Federal Ministry for Digitization and Economic Location) for the areas listed in the notification and published here, according to Annex 1 of the applicable GTC.
The analytical laboratories and National Reference Laboratories of the Institute of Animal Nutrition & Feed are accredited according to the international standard EN ISO 17025 for the procedures listed in the scope of accreditation on the homepage of the Federal Ministry for Digitization and Economic Location (BMDW) (Prüfstelle Geschäftsfeld Ernährungssicherung, LWT Vienna / Ident. No. 369), which guarantees transparent and objective procedures and quality assured results. National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) have been established for the monitoring of food, feed, human and animal pathogens, genetically modified organisms and specific classes of substances such as residues in live animals and animal products, and pesticide residues in food and feed.
More information on the National Reference Laboratories can be found link here.
Expert opinion for feed
Evaluation of analytical results and preparation of expert opinions
As part of the preparation of expert opinions for feedstuffs, we check the analytical results submitted by you. In doing so, the analytical findings are checked in accordance with the legal requirements, such as tolerances or maximum values. We then issue an expert opinion on this. In the case of analyses carried out by us, the expert opinion can also be issued together with the test report.
Do you need an expert opinion for existing analysis results of your feed samples in accordance with legal requirements (e.g. tolerances, maximum values) or would you like to have your samples analyzed and assessed by us?
Our experienced feed assessors check and evaluate the results of your analyses and, in addition to an interpretation, can also provide the assurance that your feed complies with the legal requirements with regard to the analyzed parameters. The following areas, among others, are covered by us within the scope of an expert opinion for feedstuffs:
- Examination of analytical results with regard to legal requirements (such as tolerances, maximum values)
- Examination and evaluation of feedstuffs with regard to legal requirements, composition, marketability according to the evaluated parameters and any potential hazards
- Issue of an expert opinion
Labeling inspection of feed
Checking feed labels for legal conformity
As part of a labeling inspection, a label submitted by you is checked for conformity with the currently applicable legal regulations for the labeling of feed.
Particularly in the area of labeling regulations, feed producers are faced with a multitude of requirements that must be met in order to properly label the feed. Our experienced and independent feed auditors check whether the labeling submitted by you complies with the legal requirements. In doing so, the labeling templates are checked both with regard to formal aspects and to the promotional messages, the so-called "claims".
Finally, you will receive a detailed description of the result and, in the case of "non-conformities", information on possible improvement measures. If your labeling meets the legal requirements, a corresponding confirmation can also be issued - if desired.
The following areas, among others, can be covered by us as part of a feed labeling inspection:
- Formal inspection of the labeling (e.g. labels) of feedstuffs and claims
- Detailed description of the result with indications for improvement measures
- Issue of a confirmation (in case of conformity with legal requirements)
Certificates for feed
Issuance of Certificates for Feed and Feed Businesses
After checking the submitted documents, we issue certificates for your feed, which you need for the export of your products, such as Free Sales Certificates, Health Certificates or Certificates of Registration.
While the trade of feed within the EU is very uncomplicated and uniformly regulated, the export to third countries is often more difficult. Here, each country has individual requirements that must be met in order to place a feed on the market in its territory. Proof of registration as a feed business in an EU country is usually the first step, followed by others, such as confirmation of EU marketability or freedom from certain undesirable substances.
We can assist you in this process with our know-how and the issuance of the required confirmations (according to the criteria you specify) as well as with the necessary analyses, if required.
The following areas, among others, can be covered by us:
- Issuance of the Free Sales Certificate: marketability test based on a complete test of the formulation (valid for 6 months)
- Issuance of the Certificate for product registration: for third countries/non-EU countries (valid for 6 months)
- Issuance of the Certificate of Registration: confirmation of the existing registration of a company (valid for 6 months)
- Issuance of the Health Certificate: based on the Feed Hygiene Regulation (EC Regulation No. 183/2005), confirmation of the absence of contaminants based on submitted regular self-checks or in a special batch (valid for 6 months)
- Issue of Certificate of non-animal origin: confirmation of absence of animal components on the basis of submitted tests (valid for 6 months)
- Issuance of Certificate of Analysis: information based on submitted certificates of analysis (valid for 6 months)
Sampling of feed according to Regulation (EC) No. 152/2009
Standardized sampling of feed
In the case of feed analyses carried out by us, it is possible to commission us to carry out standardized sampling. This is carried out in accordance with the requirements of EC Regulation No. 152/2009. Finally, you will receive a sampling protocol.
In order to achieve the most accurate and representative results possible when analyzing your feed samples, standardized sampling in accordance with the requirements of Regulation (EC) No. 152/2009 is an elementary step.
For samples that you would like us to analyze, you have the option of arranging for us to perform sampling that meets these criteria. After the preparation for sampling (disinfection, labeling of the sampling bags), the sampling takes place (drawing of the individual samples, mixing and formation of the final sample, filling of the sample bags and sealing). Optionally, expert advice can be given with regard to analytical tests. Subsequently, you will receive a copy of the sampling protocol.
The following areas, among others, can be covered by us as part of the sampling of feedstuffs:
- Comprehensive advice on the type of sampling
- Sampling on site by specially trained experts
- Preparation of a sampling protocol
- Technical advice regarding the analytical examination
Carryover and mixer testing of mixing equipment for feedstuffs
Carryover control and/or verification of mixing accuracy.
Good mixing accuracy and uniform distribution of individual components is essential to produce a high quality feed. Likewise, carryover of additives to non-target species can have far-reaching consequences. Therefore, feed mixing equipment should be regularly checked for these two parameters to avoid deviations in the composition of the feed and, ultimately, a detrimental effect on animal performance.
Within the scope of the mixing plant inspection, the mixing accuracy or the homogeneous distribution of the individual feed components is determined. In the course of the carry-over control, it is checked which quantities of a feed component can still be found in subsequently mixed feeds after a certain number of rinsing batches. For this purpose, a certain amount of Microtracer (colored iron particles) is added to the mixing equipment. The number of particles remaining in the product is then counted.
Our experienced and independent feed experts work with you to define the measurement batches, the mixing time, the entry points for the tracer and the sampling points. Samples are taken at different points in the mixing process. This is documented in a detailed sampling protocol. After evaluation of the samples using the rotation detector method and a statistical calculation, we prepare the test report.
The following areas, among others, can be covered by us within the scope of a carry-over and mixing test of feedstuffs:
- Control of the carry-over of feed components after a certain number of rinsing batches.
- Control of the homogeneity of mixing systems for feed production to ensure the consistent quality and mixing of the individual components
- Evaluation of homogeneity or carry-over by means of rotation detector method and a statistical calculation
- Issue of a sampling protocol and a test report
Training feed law
Feed law requirements in Austria and the EU
Feed law requirements determine the everyday life of a feed business. The abundance of regulations and their constant changes do not always make it easy for those concerned to act in accordance with the law. On the one hand, we are directly involved with our experts in the creation of legal texts (national and at EU level), and on the other hand, we have to implement them practically during feed inspections within the scope of responsibility of the Federal Office for Food Safety. We are happy to pass on the knowledge and experience gained from these activities to interested representatives of various target groups.
Prepared training packages, on request also in the form of modules in compact form, for the following target groups:
- Commercial entrepreneurs for livestock feeds
- Commercial entrepreneurs for pet food
- Farm animal owners (farmers)
- Pet owners (especially dog and cat owners) and horse owners
Desired topics and focal points can be agreed upon in advance.
Contents of the training
- Austrian feed law (feed law, feed regulation)
- Essential aspects and contents of the EU feed law
- Differentiation from other legal matters (especially food and medicinal products)
- Target group specific case studies and practical applications (e.g. advertising claims)
- Current topics (depending on relevance: salmonella, heavy metals, HCB, dioxin, etc.)
- Questions submitted by the participants
pastus+ certification program
The pastus+ certification program is a quality assurance system with the aim of establishing uniform quality criteria for feed above and beyond the legal requirements.
If required, our experts will provide you with comprehensive advice on the certification process, conduct the necessary audits, and evaluate and check compliance with the requirements at the farm. After successful evaluation, the audit protocol for AMA certification and the required pastus+ certificates are issued.
You can find more information about pastus+ here.
Soy quality determination
Soybean, -extraction meal and -cake are protein-rich feedstuffs that play an important role in feeding. Especially when using farm-grown soy, it is important to ensure that value-reducing traits are inactivated while optimally maintaining the quality of certain ingredients such as protein digestibility.
We have a broad spectrum of methods for determining quality-determining ingredients in soybeans. This includes antinutritive as well as safety- and quality-relevant parameters.
|Antinutritive ingredients||trypsin inhibitor activity * urease activity *|
|Quality-determining characteristics||Protein solubility|
|Value-determining ingredients||Crude protein Crude fat Amino acids (esp. methionine and lysine)|
*) In optimally treated feedstuffs, the trypsin inhibitor activity should not exceed 2 mg/g , the urease activity 0.4 mg/N/g/min.
Our staff is at your disposal for an informational discussion. Please contact us for this purpose.
Anwendungen von NIRS am Institut für Tierernährung und Futtermittel
Unser Institut für Tierernährung und Futtermitteln verfügt über jahrelange Erfahrung in der NIRS Analyse und verwendet selbst erstellte Kalibrationen für Feuchtigkeit, Protein, Rohasche oder Rohfaser in Abhängigkeit von der Kulturarten.
Folgende Analysen werden derzeit angeboten:
|Mais vermahlene Probe||x|
|Mischfuttermittel für Nutztiere *||x||x||x||x|
|Heimtierfuttermittel feucht *||x||x||x|| |
* im Einzelfall ist vom Institut für Tierernährung und Futtermittel zu prüfen, ob die Matrix geeignet ist
Interlaboratory comparisons are an important means of quality control in chemical analysis. Laboratories accredited according to ISO 17025 are obliged to participate in such studies on a regular basis. Successful participation in interlaboratory comparison tests is a prerequisite for accreditation or for their continued validity.
An individual laboratory can use these tests to compare its own results from the testing of a particular sample with the results of other laboratories. In this way, the laboratory obtains information about the performance of its own methods. Our Institute for Animal Nutrition and Feedingstuffs organizes annual proficiency tests for feed-relevant parameters.
Interlaboratory test IAG - International Analytical Group, Section Feed Analysis
The IAG Interlaboratory test is an international proficiency test that is performed once a year. The ring test comprises the following samples, which are tested for ingredients, additives and undesirable substances:
- Roughage, unground - mostly alfalfa or green meal pellets (sample S1, 700 g).
- Mixed feed, unground - common commercial product, complete or supplementary feed (sample S2, 700 g)
- Mixed feed, ground - mixed feed for special parameters (e.g. Hg, Cr, Ni, antioxidants, organic acids, ...), partially doped (sample S3, 300 g)
- Mineral feed, unground - usual commercial product (sample S4, 400 g).
Additionally, airtight sealed, ground subsamples (approx. 40 g) of sample S1 and S2 are submitted for the determination of moisture in order to provide a statistical evaluation of this parameter.
|S1 + S1a||S2 + S2a||S3||S4|
|Roughage, unground||Mixed feed, unground||Mixed feed, spiked with special parameters, ground||Mineral feed, unground|
|Ingredients, digestible protein, fiber fractions (ADFom, NDFom, ADL, ELOS)|| |
Ingredients including starch & sugar, Calc. energy
|Elements and heavy metals||Elements and heavy metals||Ni, Cr and As, Cd, Hg, Pb, F (spiked)||Elements and heavy metals|
Amino acids, vitamins (A, E, D3) Phytase, coccidiostats,
antioxidants,organic acids, coccidiostats
Vitamins (A, E, D3), Phytase, Enterococccus faecium
Samples in IAG 2023
The goal of the IAG round robin is to provide laboratories with opportunities to:
- verify the accuracy of their results
- verify the technical expertise of their staff
- verify the functionality of their laboratory equipment
- to fulfill the requirement of the accreditation bodies to participate in proficiency testing.
The organization and performance of proficiency testing is based on EN ISO 17043.
You can register here until March 17th, 2023 at the latest.
If you need further information please contact email@example.com.
€ 100,-/sample (excl. VAT) plus shipping costs
Additional sample material for internal quality assurance can be purchased for € 70 (excl. VAT) plus shipping costs, while stocks last.
- Europe € 30
- Asia and USA € 55
- Australia and New Zealand € 80
- Other countries on request
After payment of the participation fee and shipping costs, the samples will be shipped in May 2023.
Scope of analysis/methods
With the samples you will receive a letter with all relevant information and instructions. The results have to be entered in an EXCEL- template, which includes all the parameters to be examined (ingredients, mineral and trace elements, heavy metals, amino acids and depending on the feed also additives such as vitamins, enzymes, MHA, coccidiostats, antioxidants). The template is available on the IAG app.
It is not mandatory to analyze all offered parameters. The methods of analysis are not mandatory, but should be indicated for better interpretability of the results (indication of the standard or by means of a code). The results obtained with NIRS are evaluated separately. The results are to be reported as individual values (mean value of repetitions usual in the laboratory) related to dry matter. In addition, a cover letter with all relevant information and instructions is sent with the samples.
The evaluation is anonymous and includes the determination of mean, median, standard deviation, coefficient of variation and z-score according to ISO 13528 by means of software R. The results report is available in electronic form. The results are confidential and may not be passed on or published without the consent of the IAG.
Each participating laboratory will receive a certificate of participation and documentation of success (including the number of outliers).
Meeting for results discussion or summary report
Depending on requirements of the participating laboratories, the results of the proficiency test will be discussed in an (online) meeting or, alternatively, a summary of noticeable results and findings will be sent out to all participants in autumn 2023. Here, the participants have the opportunity to give feedback and to place wishes and suggestions for the next IAG PT.
Invitation: February 2023
Deadline for registration: March 17th, 2023
Sampling: April 2023
Sample preparation and homogeneity test: April 2023
Dispatch of samples: May 2023
Analysis of sensitive parameters: June 12th-16th, 2023 (week 24)
Deadline for results submission: July 4th, 2023
Discussion of results/ summary report: Autumn 2023
Interlaboratory test of the ALVA - Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Lebensmittel-, Veterinär- und Agrarwesen (Working Group for Food, Veterinary and Agricultural Science)
The ALVA proficiency test of the Division of Feed, Animal Nutrition and Plant Analysis is an international proficiency test which is performed once a year. The proficiency test 2023 comprises three samples: Compound feed, a mineral feed and a grain, which can be ordered optionally. The samples are tested for elements and, in some cases, ingredients.
The objective of the ALVA proficiency test is to provide laboratories with opportunities to:
- to check the accuracy of their procedures
- verify the technical expertise of their personnel
- verify the functionality of their laboratory equipment
- test the suitability of methods for different matrices
- meet the requirement of the accreditation bodies to participate in proficiency testing.
The organization and performance of this proficiency testing is based on EN ISO 17043.
Registration / Timing
Registration is done here until February 10th, 2023 at the latest, you can also find more information under this link.
The samples will be sent in the last week of February 2023.
The results submission has to be done by June 2nd, 2023.
The results report will be sent out at the end of June 2023.
100 € per sample (excl. VAT) plus shipping costs (30 € within Europe, 55 € for Asia and the USA, 80 € for Australia and New Zealand, other countries on request). For quality assurance purposes, additional material can be ordered while stocks last (70 € per sample). After registration you will receive an invoice (end of February).
Scope of analysis/methods
A list of parameters to be analyzed (ingredients, mineral and trace elements, heavy metals) is sent with the samples, but not all of them have to be analyzed obligatorily. The methods of analysis are not mandatory, but should be indicated for better interpretability of the results (the method is indicated in the report). The results are to be given as mean values based on dry matter.
The evaluation is carried out according to DIN 13528 and includes the determination of mean value, median, standard deviation, coefficient of variation and indication of the z-score and recovery rate related to the mean value. The report of results will be submitted electronically. Results are anonymous and confidential and may not be shared or published without ALVA consent.
Each participating laboratory will receive a certificate of participation, as well as an account of success (number of outliers), an individual report of the results and the proficiency testing report in English.
NIRS Proficiency Test 2023
Under the umbrella of the International Analytical Group (IAG), we and the Swiss Federal Competence Center for Agricultural Research (Agroscope) are organizing a near-infrared spectroscopy ring trial.
Nine selected feed samples will be analyzed for constituents using NIRS.
The following samples and parameters will be analyzed in this year's round robin:
|Ruminant feed (compound feed)||XP, XL, XF, XS, XA, moisture|
|Pig feed (compound feed)||XP, XL, XF, XS, XA, moisture|
|Poultry feed (compound feed)||XP, XL, XF, XS, XA, moisture|
|Corn (whole kernels)||XP, XL, XF, XS, XZ, moisture|
|Wheat||XP, XL, XF, XS, XA, moisture|
|Barley||XP, XL, XF, XS, XA, moisture|
|Soybean meal||XP, XL, moisture|
|Alfalfa silage||XP, XL, XF, XZ, XA, ADL, NDFom, ADFom, ELOS, moisture|
|Hay||XP, XL, XF, XZ, XA, ADL, NDFom, ADFom, ELOS, moisture|
Samples and parameters can be freely selected for participation in the proficiency test, depending on interest!
The aim of this round robin is to compare NIRS measurement results from different laboratories. Participation in the round robin helps laboratories to ensure better quality and control of their results. In addition, the results provide information on the comparability of measurements by independent NIRS calibrations in the individual laboratories.
For registration und further information regarding this proficiency test, please follow this link
The deadline for registration for participation is February 3rd, 2023
€ 80 per sample (up to 3 samples)
€ 65 per sample (more than 3 samples)
38 € up to 6 samples
48 € more than 6 samples
58 € up to 6 samples
88 € more than 6 samples
The samples will be dispatched in February 20th-24th, 2023 (week 8).
200 g per sample
Results will be submitted by April 18th, 2023.
All results will be evaluated on a dry matter basis.
A minimum number of 8 participating laboratories are required for complete statistical evaluation of the respective parameters.
The evaluation will be anonymous and will include the determination of mean, median, standard deviation, coefficient of variation and z-score using R software.
The results report will be available electronically at the end of June 2023. Once it is published, all participating laboratories will receive an email notification.
Results are confidential and may not be shared or published without the consent of the IAG.
Evaluation of results:
Each laboratory receives a certificate of participation and an individual lab report.
Discussion of results or summary:
Depending on the needs and wishes of the participating laboratories, it is possible to discuss the results of the NIRS proficiency test in an online meeting. The invitation with the exact date will be sent to the laboratories by email in advance. If no discussion of the results takes place, the laboratories will receive a summary of the results.
Registration for participation: February 03rd, 2023
Dispatch of samples: February 20th-24th, 2023
Deadline for submission of results: March 18th, 2023
Final report: June 2023
Do not hesitate to contact us if you have any further questions at firstname.lastname@example.org, subject ‘NIRS proficiency test 2023’.
The near infrared spectroscopy
Near infrared spectroscopy is a physical analysis method that can be used to analyze ingredients in various agricultural products within a few minutes. The principle of analysis is based on irradiating the analyte with electromagnetic radiation in the near infrared range (circa 680 - 2500 nm), which causes molecular bonds (-CH, -NH, -OH, -SH) to vibrate.
Depending on the type of bond, a spectrum can be used to infer the concentration of the unknown sample using statistical methods. For the quantification of the constituents, NIRS calibrations with data sets of known concentrations must be prepared in advance. Laboratory values analyzed by wet chemistry and collected in advance over several years serve as the basis for this.
The method is fast, inexpensive and easy to use. Furthermore, several parameters can be determined simultaneously with only one measurement. NIRS is therefore used continuously for quality control in many areas - from the field to the finished food or feed. The measurement is non-destructive and can be performed without time-consuming sample preparation (pre-drying or grinding). NIRS is particularly suitable for the determination of moisture, protein, fat, fiber and ash in cereals, flour, legumes, oilseeds and feed.
Applications of NIRS at the Institute of Animal Nutrition and Feeds
Our Institute for Animal Nutrition and Feed has many years of experience in NIRS analysis and uses self-developed calibrations for moisture, protein, crude ash or crude fiber depending on the crop.
The following analyses are currently offered:
|Variety||Water||Crude protein||Crude ash||Crude fiber|
QS is the world's largest inspection system for safe food, involving all companies involved in food production - from farmers to the store counter. Voluntary participation in QS ensures quality assurance that goes beyond official controls. Quality assurance in this system is based on self-checks, independent controls, monitoring programs and continuous internal control systems.
Feedstuffs play an important role here, as they contribute to keeping animals healthy and thus also have a significant influence on the quality of the food obtained from them. The feed sector is characterized by internationally branched commodity flows. The QS scheme relies on cooperation with other standard setters for a uniformly high level of feed safety. This facilitates the movement of goods, ensures the availability of goods and avoids unnecessary costs due to double audits.
In the course of QS feed monitoring, compliance with limit and guideline values is monitored, for example for mycotoxins, dioxins, plant treatment agents and heavy metals. We are the only laboratory in Austria that is recognized by QS for feed monitoring.
You can find more information about QS feed monitoring here.
All commercially available and self-produced feedstuffs, as well as all plants used for feeding animals, but also cereals and agricultural crops. Our range of services includes the following analytical tests: Ingredients, nutritional value, additives, minerals, trace elements, heavy metals, microbiological parameters (e.g. salmonella), microscopic examinations and technological properties (e.g. falling number) and other undesirable substances (mycotoxins, heavy metals, etc.). In addition, formal tests, such as the verification of labeling, are also carried out. For a detailed overview of our range of services, please refer to our examination catalog (see Downloads).
You can hand in your samples or send them by mail at the following locations:
- AGES Vienna, Spargelfeldstraße 191, A-1220 Vienna, Tel.: 05 0555-0 (general sample acceptance for all tests, Mon-Thu 07.00-16.30h, Fri 07.00-15.00h).
- AGES Linz, Wieningerstraße 8, A-4020 Linz, Tel.: 05 0555-41111 (for samples that are exclusively analyzed for elements and/or microbiological parameters, Mon-Thu 07.30-15.30h, Fri 07.30-15h)
When shipping samples, please be sure to include our order letter (see Downloads). Please make sure that the shipping container is tightly closed and as airtight as possible (if possible, do NOT use glass containers). For a representative homogeneous sample, the amount of sample material should not be less than 1/2kg - 1Kg (500g - 1000g). If the cold chain is not to be interrupted (e.g. in the case of moist samples), please state this DEPLICITLY on the packaging.
The duration depends on the respective question and the number of sample parameters to be analyzed. In general, however, it can be said that 95 % of our analyses are completed within 14 days. It should be noted that microbiological analyses (bacterial count, etc.) are carried out using cultural methods (cell growth on suitable nutrient media), which must be incubated for some time and therefore take at least one week.
In case of particularly urgent analyses (imminent danger), please contact our staff immediately.
The costs for your feed analysis depend on the desired parameters and the respective analysis effort and amount to between about 20 € and 450 € per analysis. For an exact cost information for the parameters of your choice, please contact the Institute for Animal Nutrition and Feed.
The "Weender Analysis" is the standard procedure for the determination of standard feed ingredients. The simple Weender analysis includes the determination of crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, crude fiber and moisture. The extended Weender analysis additionally includes the analysis of starch and sugar. The ingredients determined by the simple Weender analysis are among the mandatory labeling components of complete and complementary feeds (with the exception of mineral supplements) for food-producing animals, but also for cats, dogs and fur animals in accordance with Regulation (EC) 767/2009.
Undesirable substances are substances or products, other than pathogens, which are present in and/or on a product intended for animal feed and which may pose a potential risk to human or animal health or to the environment or which may adversely affect animal production. Undesirable substances in feed include, but are not limited to, heavy metals (such as arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury), mycotoxins (such as deoxynivalenol or aflatoxins), plant-derived toxins (such as gossypol or theobromine), nitrite, hydrogen cyanide, organic chlorine compounds, and dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (PCBs).
Last updated: 15.12.2022