Feed is an important basis for the production of our food of animal origin. In the pet sector, too, feeding that is appropriate for the animals is of great importance. Flawless feed is the prerequisite for healthy and productive animals.
The monitoring and analysis of feedstuffs on the Austrian market is one of our central tasks, which is carried out by our Institute for Animal Nutrition and Feed. Due to the diverse range of examinations, possible hazards for humans, animals and the environment can be detected and prevented at an early stage.
In the feed report (see downloads at the end of this page) you will find in compact form all relevant information on official control and possible risks in feed as well as various investigation figures on the subject.
Every person or company that markets feed in any way must register with the Federal Office for Food Safety (BAES). Here you will find further information on this subject as well as the current register of registered/approved feed businesses.
Feed Risk Map
Risk minimization along the food chain(from field to fork) and food security form an important focus, in line with our basic strategic orientation.
In accordance with the impact goal "Food security and safeguarding sustainable, environmentally sound agricultural production", our Institute of Animal Nutrition and Feed pays particular attention to controlling risks in the feed chain through integrative risk analysis (risk assessment).
In order to present the hazard and risk spectrum clearly, a risk map has been drawn up. This will continue to provide information on the risk situation in Austria, but also support the planning of strategic initiatives and measures in the areas of control activities, research, resource planning or communication.
The European Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) is a central information platform for the national authorities of all EU Member States on current risks in the food and feed sector. We have been RASFF contact point for feed (Vienna) since 2002 and national contact point for food (Salzburg) since 2007.
The individual notifications on food and feed can be accessed in anonymous form on the publicly accessible RASFF portal of the European Commission. The aim is to provide information on the most important and current risks in the feed sector in the EU area.
As in the entire European area, there is also an undersupply in the protein feed sector in Austria. Protein feeds such as soy, rapeseed or sunflower are indispensable for the production of animal food (eggs, meat and milk) and have to be partly imported from overseas.
The largest cultivation areas for soy are currently in the USA, Brazil and Argentina, but also in Canada and other South American countries (Paraguay, Uruguay and Bolivia).
Imports to Austria
Every year, about 500,000 tons of soy and soy meal are imported, mainly from South America (Argentina, Brazil) and North America (USA), primarily to meet demand in pig and poultry farming. In recent years, the supply situation of soybean in Austria has continuously improved. Whereas the production of soybeans in the year 2000 was still just under 33,000 tons, in 2020 already more than 202,000 tons will be produced in Austria. Nevertheless, Austria wants to become less dependent on imports as part of its "Protein Strategy 2020+". One goal is to further expand domestic soy production in order to reduce imports by half by 2030. Currently, about one fifth of all protein sources come from imports.
Cultivation of soybeans in Austria
The cultivation of genetically modified seeds is generally prohibited in Austria. In the USA, a major soybean supplier, the area under GM soybean took up 95% in 2021. The available area for GM-free soybeans thus fell to 5% (source: Transgen.de).
With the general increase in GM-free production in Austria, soybean cultivation has also increased sharply in recent years. According to Statistics Austria, the area under soybean cultivation will be about 75,700 ha in 2021, making Austria the fifth largest soybean producer in the EU and taking major steps towards independence from soybean imports.
As a protein source for animal feed, other legumes such as grain peas, field beans, lupins, red clover and alfalfa thrive in our climatic zones in addition to soybeans. In addition, by-products of the oil-processing industry, such as extraction meal and press cake from oilseed crops (soybean, rapeseed, sunflower) and the dried stillage (also known as DDGS) from alcohol extraction, form valuable protein feeds. The largest domestic source of protein, however, is grassland.
GMO-free soy production in Austria
Due to the Codex Guideline "GMO-free production", food products in Austria can be labeled "GMO-free produced" via private quality seal programs. Since 2010, all Austrian milk production has been converted to GMO-free production, as has Austrian laying hen husbandry since the beginning of 2012. The demand for GMO-free feed has also increased significantly in pig fattening and fattening poultry production.
In order to meet the requirements, only GMO-free feed (feed free of genetically modified organisms) may be fed. Limiting GMO-free feeds are mainly protein feeds and in particular soybeans, which are currently mainly sourced from Brazil, but also from domestic production. GMO-free feeds may only have a maximum GMO content of 0.9%. If the GMO content exceeds 0.9%, the feed is subject to GM declaration and may consequently only be used for conventional feeding.
GMOs in feed
Precise labeling guidelines are provided in the European Union for the marketing of feed containing GMOs (genetically modified organisms). Feed containing approved GMOs or produced from approved GMOs must be labeled. This does not apply to feed containing a maximum of 0.9% of genetically modified material of a crop species, provided that this presence is adventitious and technically unavoidable (Art. 12 of Regulation (EC) No. 1829/2003).
Genetically modified feed may also be placed on the market in the European Union without authorization, provided that it complies with the criteria of Regulation (EC) No. 619/2011. The prerequisite for this is a corresponding assessment by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and a maximum GMO content of 0.1%.
For all other non-approved genetically modified organisms, no threshold exists. Even traces of such GMOs in feed or in products made from them are not tolerated. The reason for this regulation is to protect consumers from possible health risks.
For the production of feed from organic farming GMOs are generally prohibited, for adventitious or unavoidable admixtures of GMOs a maximum content of 0.9% is tolerated.
The control of feed in Austria for unauthorized GMOs mainly concerns the labeling of soy, corn and rapeseed. Based on a risk-based control plan, the number of samples for these GMO investigations is adjusted annually. In addition, checks for genetically modified rice, linseed, potato, sugar beet and cotton are carried out as required.
Feed testing for GMOs between 2018 to 2020:
|Year||Number of investigations||Complaints|
Further information on genetically modified organisms can be found here.
Insects as feed
Lack of protein supply
The feeding of "meat-and-bone meal" - correctly, processed animal proteins derived from mammals - to farm animals was banned by Regulation (EC) 999/2001 at the beginning of this millennium. (This ban does not apply to the feeding of pets.) Irrespective of the ethical discussion, this triggered a shortage in the protein supply of farm animals. Until now, this could only be compensated to a limited extent with vegetable protein sources. Although supplementation with synthetic amino acids has alleviated this situation, the annual increase in global meat consumption and thus the increased demand for feed protein have nevertheless led to talk of a protein gap - especially in the supply of pigs, poultry and in aquaculture.
Insects as possible protein sources
Insects represent one possibility for providing protein in a composition that is particularly beneficial for fish and poultry. The main components of the dry matter of insect larvae are fat and protein in a ratio of about 1:1. Among the amino acids, a favorable ratio of lysine: methionine is evident, as well as a strikingly high content of the fatty acid lauric acid (C 12:0) in certain species. The first major initiatives and projects in this direction were launched in Europe around 2012, and the legislative discussion in Brussels started in 2013.
The European Food Safety Authority ( EFSA ) also took a position on the use of insects as feed in a 2015 report(EFSA Journal 2015; 13 (10): 4257). Since the beginning of the discussion, an increasing interest of the expert public, among others also in Austria, could be registered. Therefore, the European Commission also felt compelled to adapt the existing legal framework of the ABP (animal by-products) Regulation with Regulation ( EU) 2017/893 to the effect that insects in the form of processed animal protein can also be used in livestock feeding. The range of use of insects has been permitted for all livestock except ruminants since 2021, although the selection of insects has been limited.
The following insects can serve as feedstock for processed animal proteins:
- Soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)
- House fly (Musca domestica)
- Flour beetle (Tenebrio molitor)
- Grain mould beetle (Alphitobius diaperinus)
- Cricket (Acheta domesticus)
- Short-winged cricket (Gryllodes sigillatus)
- Steppe cricket (Gryllus assimilis)
Implementation & Problems
A major problem in the practical implementation of insect production is that insects are considered livestock under feed law and therefore may only be fed in a manner analogous to livestock. This means that substrates that could potentially be used with insects, such as compost, food waste, animal excreta (feces) or other organic residues, may not be used because they are either expressly prohibited by feed law or do not meet other requirements for livestock feed. This circumstance leads to relatively high costs compared to established vegetable protein sources.
Feed additives Information and authorization procedure
Feed additives are substances, microorganisms or preparations that are intentionally added to feed or water but are not themselves feed materials. They are divided into the following categories according to their functions:
Technological additives: preservatives, stabilizers, antioxidants, binders, ...
Sensory additives: flavorings, colorants
Nutritional additives: vitamins, provitamins, amino acids and their salts, trace elements, urea and its derivatives.
Zootechnical additives: intestinal flora stabilizers, digestibility enhancers and substances that positively influence the environment, other zootechnical additives and agents for stabilizing the physiological condition
Coccidiostats and histomonostats
A feed additive may only be authorized if the following criteria are met (according to Regulation (EC) No 1831/2003, Article 5). The additive must:
not have a harmful effect on animal health, human health or the environment
not be presented in a way that may mislead users
not be detrimental to consumers by affecting the quality of animal products and must not mislead them as to the quality of animal products.
In addition, the additive must meet at least one of the following criteria:
have a positive effect on the nature of the animal feed
positively influence the nature of animal products
positively influence the color of ornamental fish and birds
meet the nutritional needs of the animals
positively influence the ecological consequences of animal production
positively influence animal production, performance or welfare, in particular by influencing the gastrointestinal flora or the digestibility of feed, or
have a coccidiostatic or histomonostatic effect.
According to Regulation (EC) No 1831/2003 (additives for use in animal nutrition), the authorization of a feed additive must be carried out in a Community procedure before it can be placed on the market and fed. A feed additive is only authorized if it can be shown not to have a harmful effect on human health, animal health or the environment and to fulfil a specific purpose or function.
An applicant submits an application for authorization to the European Commission, which is transmitted to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).
Mycotoxins (mold toxins) and grain corn
Grain corn represents an integral feed ration component in livestock feeding, especially in pig finishing operations. Likewise, grain maize is significantly used as wet and dry maize in the starch industry and in citric acid production. In these utilization directions, the remaining protein component is marketed as high-quality feed. For each utilization direction, it is important that the harvested crop is as qualitatively flawless as possible. Cob rot caused by Fusarium fungi poses a quality risk. Its occurrence can be reduced by cultivation measures, in particular the choice of variety, but is highly dependent on the annual weather conditions.
Mycotoxin pre-harvest monitoring of grain corn Mycotoxin levels (mold toxin levels) have an influence on the possible uses of corn and corn products. In order to get a first overview of the quality of the corn harvest before the main harvest, the Austrian Chambers of Agriculture and we carry out mycotoxin pre-harvest monitoring of grain corn. The latest data on mycotoxin monitoring can be found here.
The year 2020 was characterized mainly by a September and October with high precipitation. The load of deoxynivalenol (DON) with an annual median of 1097 µg/kg and an annual mean of 1618 µg/kg was therefore higher this year than in previous years, as expected. In the Illyrian climate region there were isolated hail events in 2020, which can lead to higher loads of Fusarium and thus to an increased occurrence of mycotoxins. Median DON values represented the highest median values in each growing region over the past five years, with the exception of the median value in the Northern Alpine Wetland in 2016 (887 µg/kg). The 2020 DON results represent the second highest values since the monitoring program began, with higher values recorded only in 2014. Based on the levels in the samples from the variety trials, increased caution is warranted with regard to the quality and intended use of the Illyrian corn crop.
|Cultivation area||Number||Mean||CI (MW)||Median||AI (median)|
|Northern Alpine||493||1043||693 1123||775||732 825|
|Pannonian||180||436||406 467||402||376 423|
|Illyricum||484||1061||993 1129||862||800 920|
|Northern Alpine||496||263||256 270||237||231 249|
|Pannonian||299||283||272 294||255||242 271|
|Illyric||449||620||570 669||483|| |
|Northern Alpine||459||793||719 867||528||487 563|
|Pannonian||200||910||817 1023||754||668 856|
|Illyrikum||387||1693||1576 1809||1375||1277 1497|
|Northern Alpine||428||1428||1270 1587||778||661 863|
|Pannonian||201||1110||962 1257||884||764 1009|
|Illyrikum||375||1933||1773 2092||1387||1280 1556|
|North Alpine||482||713||648 777||483||446 530|
|Pannonian||230||426||383 470||298||259 318|
|Illyric||439||484||441 527||304||271 345|
Within the DaFNE project "Optimization of a reliable methodology for the evaluation of genetic determinacy and differentiation of susceptibility to cob fusariosis in the maize assortment in Austria" (acronym: KOFUMA, project no. 100792), investigations of the mycotoxin content in the grain maize variety value test were carried out in 2011 - 2014. These were continued as part of the monitoring program for mycotoxins in grain maize. Here you can find all results of the mycotoxin monitoring of the past years.
Mycotoxins - Feed law situation
Mycotoxins belong to the group of undesirable substances, whereby the associated legal text (Directive 2002/32/EC) only specifies a limit value for the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1. Other mycotoxins, such as DON, ZEA, but also ochratoxin or fumonisins are regulated in the EU Recommendation 2006/576/EC  with guide values. Currently, maximum levels are being discussed at the European level instead of guideline values for compound feed. In the future, guideline values will only be set for straight feeding stuffs. Furthermore, the accepted values for mycotoxins in feedstuffs are to be adjusted downwards.
If a limit value is exceeded, the product concerned must be removed from the feed chain and may not be diluted. Exceeding the guideline value, on the other hand, can be countered by dilution. In addition to dilution with uncontaminated or less contaminated corn, the use of other types of grain (wheat, barley) is also recommended. The following is an excerpt of the guideline values for the mycotoxins DON and ZEA according to the above-mentioned EU recommendation:
|Product||DON (µg/kg with 88 %T)||ZEA (µg/kg with 88 %T)|
|Cereal and cereal by-products||8.000||2.000|
|Compound feed for piglets and gilts||900||100|
|Compound feed for sows and fattening pigs||900||250|
When using so-called mycotoxin binders, care must be taken to ensure that only products approved for "reducing contamination with mycotoxins" may be used. Details on dosage and conditions of use can be found in the relevant approval regulations.
Other products advertised as mycotoxin binders - contrary to feed law requirements - belong in the majority to the category of technological feed additives and may not be advertised or used for other purposes. In addition, it should be noted that these may not be suitable for binding the desired mycotoxins due to a wide variety of chemical properties.
Recommendations for the control of Salmonella in feed production.
After Salmonella Agona was frequently found in imported soybean meal in 2011/2012, the feed industry decided in cooperation with us to draw up recommendations for self-monitoring of Salmonella contamination in feed. The working group was composed of representatives of the compound feed industry, oil mills, feed wholesalers and AGES. The aim was to develop practicable guidelines to enable self-monitoring and a coordinated approach within the industry in the event of salmonella occurrence. At the same time, however, a better awareness with regard to hygiene and a proactive approach to problem solving are to be promoted. Four risk levels were developed for the three defined types of operations: oil mills, wholesale trade and compound feed production, suggesting different approaches:
- Level 1: routine operations
- Stage 2: sporadic occurrence of salmonella in feedstuffs
- Level 3: frequent detection of Salmonella in feedstuffs
- Level 4: human illness proven to be linked to a contaminated feed.
The measures recommended for each level can be found in detail in the recommendations for the control of Salmonella in feed production (see downloads at the bottom of the page).
Salmonella in dust
Protein-containing straight feedstuffs such as soybean, rapeseed or sunflower extraction meal are considered a significant source of contamination for compound feed and in compound feed operations. In this context, salmonellae often occur in feed at very low concentrations. However, low bacterial levels make analytical detection of positive samples difficult. Dust particles, on the other hand, represent an excellent medium for Salmonella due to their large surface area and can be detected here more readily than in (mixed) feed.
Against this background, the SINS project was designed to provide an overview of the contamination rate in Austrian feed businesses (individual or compound feed). For this purpose, 3699 dust samples were taken and examined along the entire production process in 39 feed plants. In addition, an overview of the hygiene status with regard to salmonella was drawn up - based on a period of one year.
Salmonella were detected significantly more frequently in the area of raw material storage, especially in protein-containing straight feeds (extraction meal), as well as around the elevators and in the area around thermal treatment, than after thermal treatment.
During the observation period, Salmonella was detected more frequently in dust samples than in straight feeds. However, the results obtained in the dust samples showed a clear correlation with the serotypes detected in the feeds.
In addition, oilseed crops were found to be a major contributor to the introduction of Salmonella into the compound feedlot. Salmonella introduced into a feed mill can become persistent and (re)contaminate subsequent batches of compound feed, depending on the serovar and local conditions at the facility.
The seasonal fluctuations in the occurrence of Salmonella were particularly striking. Here, an increased occurrence was particularly evident in the cold season. Especially in the pelleting process, the ratio of outside temperature to pelleting temperature - with regard to possible condensation - seems to be the decisive factor.
Further information on this project can be found here.
Decontamination with organic acids
Salmonella in feed can cause enormous economic damage in affected compound feed operations and farms. The decontamination of salmonella in feed as well as the reuse of these decontaminated feeds is permitted under feed law.
With the introduction of a new additive functional group "(n)" for hygiene improvement, a legal basis was created at EU level via Regulation (EU) 2015/2294. Hygiene improvers are substances or microorganisms that have a beneficial effect on the hygienic properties of feed by reducing specific microbiological contamination.
The use of formaldehyde to decontaminate feed is no longer permitted.
Decontamination of feed can be done either by physical or chemical means. Physical decontamination can be done either by heat or also by irradiation (mostly dog toys).
Chemical decontamination is done by mixing organic acids and their salts or mixtures thereof into the contaminated feed. However, the effect advertised by the acid producers is often not achieved in practice with the recommended exposure times and admixture rates for the acid preparations. Examples of organic acids for decontamination are: Formic acid, lactic acid, propionic acid and benzoic acid and their salts. In most cases, mixed preparations are offered.
The success of a decontamination must always be proven by a certificate of analysis. To exclude false negative results, it is advisable to carry out the tests using a tenfold preparation. Inadequately performed decontamination of feedstuffs leads to further contamination of other feedstuffs (cross-contamination) and subsequently to infection in the poultry flock and thus to a risk of infection for humans through the consumption of animal foodstuffs (egg and meat). Due to insufficient decontamination efficacy, Salmonella outbreaks have occurred repeatedly in poultry farms in the past.
The DECONTAM study was conducted by our Institute of Animal Nutrition and Feed between 1.7.2014 and 30.6.2016. The main objective of the study was to find out at what acid level and contact time reliable decontamination can be achieved in selected test feeds.
The study was conducted with three Salmonella contaminated feeds (soybean extraction meal, ground milk thistle seeds and corn gluten). Furthermore, five acid preparations were used for the study. The recommended dosage of the manufacturers or distributors was between 0.1 - 1 % for the four liquid preparations and 0.3 - 1.3 % for the powder preparation. Three different exposure times (1, 2 and 7 days) and seven concentrations (1 %, 2 %, 3 %, 4 %, 5 % ,6 % and 7 %) were tested with the five acid preparations and the three feeds.
Each test variant was analyzed with a tenfold approach. In the study, successful decontamination is understood to mean that Salmonella is no longer detectable (0/10) in the previously highly contaminated feed (10/10) after acid treatment and with a specific exposure time in a tenfold batch.
At low acid concentrations, as recommended by the manufacturers in the product data sheets, no significant decontamination occurred in any of the three feeds. A reliable effect occurred even with the more effective liquid preparations only with 6% acid addition at 7-day exposure time or 7% acid addition at 1-day exposure time. The powder preparation used did not provide satisfactory decontamination in any of the three test feeds.
The use of acid preparations for the decontamination of Salmonella in compound feeds, but especially for finished feeds, cannot be recommended in compound feed production and for the farm. Due to the high amount of acid required, this may result in feed refusal and severe irritation of the animals' digestive tract. In addition, interactions with other feed components, such as calcium carbonate or other minerals, may occur.
Based on our DECONTAM study results, decontamination of Salmonella with the five acid preparations used can only be recommended for raw materials (straight feed) and only at doses of 7% acid addition with a one-day contact time or 6% acid addition and a seven-day contact time.
Further information on the DECONTAM study can be found here.
Ethoxyquin in feed
Ethoxyquin is a chemical compound that has antioxidant properties. That is, it prevents the rancidity of fats and delays the degradation of vitamins such as vitamin A, vitamin E, carotenoids, etc. Ethoxyquin has been used as an antioxidant in animal feed since the 1950s. As a technological additive, it was included in the feed additive register with the identification number E 324 and approved for all animal species, with the exception of dogs (100 mg/kg), with a maximum value of 150 mg/kg complete feed.
Due to the unclear data on the toxicity of ethoxyquin, its approval as a feed additive was suspended as of June 28, 2017.
Feed containing certain additive preparations of fat-soluble vitamins and related products and ethoxyquin may no longer be used as of Dec. 31, 2018. All other feeds containing the additive ethoxyquin may no longer be used since March 28, 2018.
Feed containing feed materials such as dry algae, fish, other aquatic animals and products derived from them may contain ethoxyquin and were still allowed to be used until June 30, 2020.
According to the new additive regulation, an application for authorization had to be submitted for the additive within seven years and all relevant authorization documents had to be submitted. Due to the unclear data situation regarding the toxicity of ethoxyquin, a safety assessment by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in October 2015 could not confirm the safety of the additive.
For an intermediate of ethoxyquin, ethoxyquinonimine, not enough data could be provided regarding genotoxicity (possible damage to the genetic material). Furthermore, contamination with another intermediate from the manufacturing process (p-phenetidine) is considered a possible mutagen. A mutagen causes a permanent change in the genetic material.
The data situation is also insufficient with regard to the actual hazard potential for humans and the occurrence of intermediates. Ethoxyquin is deposited preferentially in fatty tissue. Excessive consumption of (fatty) fish in which ethoxyquin has accumulated in fatty tissue could pose a potential hazard to humans.
Ethoxyquin is currently being replaced by other antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA, E 320) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, E 321). The presence of ethoxyquin in feed is checked and monitored by the competent authorities in the European Union as part of feed controls.
What are antioxidants needed for?
Feed materials such as fish meal and fish oil have a high fatty acid content. These react with oxygen. In combination with higher temperatures, they can ignite or explode. During transport, e.g. on container ships, antioxidants are therefore used to prevent possible explosions.
Ethoxyquin has also been used in other products used in animal feed production that contain fat-soluble vitamins. Until the end of its approval as a plant protection product in 2011, ethoxyquin was also used to protect against skin rot in pears in glasshouses.
Dipl. Ing. Irmengard Strnad
- +43 50 555-33216
Last updated: 15.04.2022